Psychological well-being in college students: Psychometric properties of the Brief Inventory of Thriving (BIT) and the Comprehensive Inventory of Thriving (CIT)
Journal of School and Educational Psychology,
Vol. 1 No. 1 (2021),
15 September 2021
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the psychometric properties of two integrative inventories of psychological well-being– the Brief Inventory of Thriving (BIT) and the Comprehensive Inventory of Thriving (CIT)– that could be widely used among Turkish young adults. This study also aimed to examine whether students with severe psychological health symptoms reported higher levels of loneliness, lack of control, and negative feelings, and fewer positive domains of the CIT (e.g., support, belonging, positive feelings, and self-efficacy). The participants of this study included 314 Turkish undergraduate students (76% female with an age range of 18–47 years [M = 22.83, SD = 4.09]) from a state university in Turkey. Confirmatory factor analyses showed good psychometric fit statistics of both the CIT and BIT, confirming the latent structure of inventories. Factor loadings of the CIT items were strong, with robust indicator reliabilities. With regard to the concurrent validity of the measures, the study results showed that the domains and the brief version of the measure had significant correlations with psychological health symptoms. Additionally, individuals with severe mental health symptoms reported fewer positive psychological domains of psychological well-being, whereas having higher negative domains of psychological well-being than those with mild symptoms. Specifically, Cohen's d effect sizes were large for some social resources and subjective well-being domains. Overall, these results provide evidence suggesting that both the CIT and BIT could be used to assess psychological well-being among Turkish young adults.
- Thriving, psychological well-being, positive psychology, validity, reliability
How to Cite
Arslan, G. (2018). Psychological maltreatment, social acceptance, social connectedness, and subjective well-being in adolescents. Journal of Happiness Studies, 19(4), 983–1001.
Arslan, G. (2019). Exploring the effects of positive psychological strengths on psychological adjustment in adolescents. Child Indicators Research, 12(4), 1449-1464.
Arslan, G. (2020). Anlamlı Yaşam Ölçeğinin Geliştirilmesi: Anlamlı yaşama ilişkin kısa ve etkili bir ölçme aracı. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 56, 227–242. https://doi.org/10.21764/ maeuefd.773686
Arslan, G., & Allen, K. A. (2021). School victimization, school belongingness, psychological well-being, and emotional problems in adolescents. Child Indicators Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-021-09813-4
Arslan, G., & Allen, K.-A. (2020). Complete mental health in elementary school children: Understanding youth school functioning and adjustment. Current Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-020-00628-0
Arslan, G., & Renshaw, T. L. (2018). Student subjective wellbeing as a predictor of adolescent problem behaviors: A comparison of first-order and second-order factor effects. Child Indicators Research, 11(2), 507-521.
Arslan, G., & Yıldırım, M. (2021). Meaning-Based Coping and Spirituality During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Mediating Effects on Subjective Well-Being. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 1012.
Arslan, G., Allen, K.-A., Telef, B. B., & Craig, H. (2020). Social-emotional health in higher education: a psychometric evaluation with Turkish students. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling. https://doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2020.1789554
Arslan, G., Yıldırım, M., Karatas, Z., Kabasakal, Z., & Kılınc, M. (2020). Meaningful living to promote complete mental health among university students in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00416-8
Aziz, I. A., & Yıldırım, M. (2020). Investigating relationship between psychological trait resilience and forgiveness among internally displaced persons. Psychology, Community & Health, 8(1), 263-274.
Bieda, A., Hirschfeld, G., Schönfeld, P., Brailovskaia, J., Zhang, X. C., & Margraf, J. (2017). Universal happiness? Cross-cultural measurement invariance of scales assessing positive mental health. Psychological Assessment, 29(4), 408–421. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000353
Butler, J., & Kern, M. L. (2016). The PERMA-Profiler: A brief multidimensional measure of flourishing. International Journal of Wellbeing, 6(3), 1–48. https://doi.org/10.5502/ijw.v6i3.526
Carver, C. S. (2014). Optimism. In A. C. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research (pp. 4500–4503). Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0753-5_2018
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioralsciences (2nd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum.
Curran, P. J., West, S. G., & Finch, J. F. (1996). The robustness of test statistics to nonnormality and specification error in confirmatory factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 1(1), 16–29. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.1.1.16
Derogatis, L. R., & Fitzpatrick, M. (2004). The SCL-90-R, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the BSI-18. In M. E. Maruish (Ed.), The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcomes assessment: Instruments for adults, Volume 3, 3rd ed. (pp. 1–41). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95(3), 542–575. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.95.3.542
Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75.
Diener, E., Suh, E. M., & Lucas, R. E. (1999). Subjective well-being: three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125(2), 276–302.
Doll, B. (2008). The Dual-Factor Model of Mental Health in Youth. School Psychology Review, 37(1), 69–73. https://doi.org/10.1080/02796015.2008.12087909
Duan, W., Guan, Y., & Gan, F. (2016). Brief Inventory of Thriving. Chinese Sociological Dialogue, 1(1), 15–31. https://doi.org/10.1177/2397200916665230
Furlong, M., Dowdy, E., Carnazzo, K., Bovery, B. L., & Kim, E. (2014). Covitality: Fostering the Building Blocks of Complete Mental Health. Communique, 42(8), 1–28.
Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. R. (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 53–60.
Keyes, C. L. M. (2003). Complete mental health: An agenda for the 21st century. In Flourishing: Positive psychology and the life well-lived. (pp. 293–312). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/10594-013
Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford .
Martins, L. M. D. G., & Ferreira, M. C. (2018). Psychometric Properties of the Inventory of Thriving: Brief and Comprehensive Versions. Temas Em Psicologia, 26(3), 1573–1587. https://doi.org/10.9788/TP2018.3-15En
Renshaw, T. L., & Arslan, G. (2019). Testing the psychological wellbeing and distress screener with Turkish adolescents. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 7(3), 165-173.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68
Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(4), 719–727. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.529
Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037//0278-6184.108.40.206
Sorgente, A., Zambelli, M., Tagliabue, S., & Lanz, M. (2021). The comprehensive inventory of thriving: a systematic review of published validation studies and a replication study. Current Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-02065-z
Su, R., Tay, L., & Diener, E. (2014). The development and validation of the Comprehensive Inventory of Thriving (CIT) and the Brief Inventory of Thriving (BIT). Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 6(3), 251–279. https://doi.org/10.1111/aphw.12027
Wiese, C. W., Tay, L., Su, R., & Diener, E. (2018). Measuring thriving across nations: Examining the measurement equivalence of the Comprehensive Inventory of Thriving (CIT) and the Brief Inventory of Thriving (BIT). Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 10(1), 127–148. https://doi.org/10.1111/aphw.12119
Yıldırım, M., & Arslan, G. (2020). Exploring the associations between resilience, dispositional hope, preventive behaviours, subjective well-being, and psychological health among adults during early stage of COVID-19. Current Psychology, 1-11. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-020-01177-2
Yıldırım, M., & Arslan, G. (2021). A moderated mediation effect of stress-related growth and meaning in life in the association between coronavirus suffering and satisfaction with life: Development of the Stress-Related Growth Measure. Frontiers in psychology, 12, 529.
Yıldırım, M., Arslan, G., & Ahmad Aziz, I. (2020). Why do people high in COVID-19 worry have more mental health disorders? The roles of resilience and meaning in life. Psychiatria Danubina, 32(3-4), 505-512.
Yıldırım, M., Arslan, G., & Wong, P. T. (2021). Meaningful living, resilience, affective balance, and psychological health problems among Turkish young adults during coronavirus pandemic. Current Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-020-01244-8
- Abstract Viewed: 87 times
- PDF Downloaded: 63 times